V. The area of Massachusetts - 10,555 square miles (in 2002); the area of England - 50,327 square miles (in 1971).

VI. Liverpool is in northwest England, on the Mersey River; Marseilles is in southeast France, on the Mediterranean Sea; Vienna is the capital of Austria, in the northeast part, on the Danube River; Berlin is the capital of Germany, in the northeast part; Oxford is a borough in south central England on the Thames River.

VII. The Rhine flows from southeast Switzerland through Germany, the Netherlands, and into the North Sea; the Danube flows from southwest Germany through Austria, Slovakia, Hungary, Serbia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Slovenia, Bulgaria, Romania, and the Ukraine to the Black Sea; the Potomac flows from northeast West Virginia, along the Virginia-Maryland border to the Chesapeake Bay.


I. Alexander Hamilton (1757-1804) was an American statesman and political and economic theorist; first Secretary of the Treasury, 1789-1797; one of the authors of The Federalist Papers, which were written to gain popular support for the proposed U.S. Constitution. He was killed by Aaron Burr in a duel. Alexander Humboldt (1769-1859) was a German naturalist, writer, and statesman. Alexander Pope (1688-1744) was an English poet and satirist.

II. Count (Otto von) Bismark (1815-1898) was creator and first chancellor of the German Empire (1871-1890). Victor Emmanuel I (1759-1824) was king of Sardinia (1802-1821); Victor Emmnuel II (1820-1878) was king of Sardinia (1849-1878) and first king of Italy (1861-1878). William E. Gladstone (1809-1898) was British prime minister (4 times between 1868 and 1894).

III. America was discovered in 1492. The Declaration of Independence is the public act by which the Second Continental Congress, on July 4, 1776, declared the Colonies to be free and independent of England. The U. S. Constitution is the system of fundamental laws and principles that prescribes the nature, functions, and limits of the government of the United States; framed in 1787 by the Constitutional Convention, it went into effect March 4, 1789.

VI.Kenilworth was written by Sir Walter Scott; Othello, by William Shakespeare; In Memoriam by Alfred, Lord Tennyson; The Earthly Paradise by William Morris; Lycidas by John Milton; The Rape of the Lock by Alexander Pope; Childe Harold by George Gordon, Lord Byron; The Lady of the Lake by Sir Walter Scott.

VII. Shakespeare lived in the 16th & 17th centuries; Wordsworth lived in the 18th & 19th; and Pope in the 17th & 18th.

VIII. Chaucer - Canterbury Tales, Troilus and Criseyde; Thackeray - Vanity Fair, Pendennis; Tennyson - Charge of the Light Brigade, The Lady of Shallot; Washington Irving - The Legend of Sleepy Hollow, Rip Van Winkle; Whittier - Snow-bound, Barbara Frietchie.

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