Scholarly Communication

OA research in the news: Reader for the visually impaired

Posted July 23rd, 2014 by Katharine Dunn

ring_in_use_correctedResearchers in the Media Lab’s Fluid Interfaces Group have built a prototype of a device that helps visually impaired people read printed text. The FingerReader, developed by graduate student Roy Shilkrot and professor Pattie Maes, among others, sits like a ring on a user’s finger and scans words via a built-in camera as the user points to them. Software identifies the words and translates them into an audio track. The FingerReader also alerts users if their finger veers away from a line of text.

Though the FingerReader isn’t on the market, the researchers say they’re looking into this option. As Maes recently told the Associated Press, the FingerReader is “a lot more flexible, a lot more immediate than any solution that they have right now.”

Explore Professor Maes’s research in the Open Access Articles collection in DSpace@MIT, where it is openly accessible to the world.

Since the MIT faculty established their Open Access Policy in March 2009 they have made thousands of research papers freely available to the world via DSpace@MIT. To highlight that research, we’re offering a series of blog posts that link news stories about scholars’ work to their open access papers in DSpace.

OA research in the news: Robotics expert Seth Teller dies

Posted July 9th, 2014 by Katharine Dunn
Seth Teller

Seth Teller

Seth Teller, a professor in the Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS) and head of the Robotics, Vision, and Sensor Networks group, died last week at the age of 50. In a message to the EECS community, several of Teller’s colleagues wrote: “There can be no doubt of the magnitude of the loss we face on both a personal and professional level. Seth’s outstanding contributions as a researcher, teacher, mentor, and colleague set a standard that has inspired many of us. He was a generous, warm person whose passion for his work was contagious. He had a unique ability to envision new approaches to problems, then assemble, motivate, and guide large research teams to accomplish things far beyond what they thought possible.”

Teller worked in a wide range of fields, including robotics, vision, graphics, and human-computer interfaces. He recently led the MIT team that will compete in the finals of the DARPA Robotics Challenge, the goal of which is to develop robots that can help humans in disaster zones. He was also a leader of MIT’s Fifth Sense Project, whose researchers develop wearable devices to assist blind and low-vision people.

Explore Professor Teller’s research in the Open Access Articles collection in DSpace@MIT, where it is openly accessible to the world.

Since the MIT faculty established their Open Access Policy in March 2009 they have made thousands of research papers freely available to the world via DSpace@MIT. To highlight that research, we’re offering a series of blog posts that link news stories about scholars’ work to their open access papers in DSpace.

OA research in the news: The cost of patent trolls

Posted June 25th, 2014 by Katharine Dunn
Catherine Tucker

Catherine Tucker

A new study by a Sloan researcher suggests that the recent increase of so-called “patent trolls”—companies that do little more than sue others over patent rights—has resulted in a huge loss of entrepreneurial activity in the United States. The study, by marketing professor Catherine Tucker, correlates patent litigation and venture capital (VC) investment using data from 1995 to 2012. The “evidence suggests that more lawsuits can distract management from developing new and innovative products, and may cause them to ignore products targeted by lawsuits, in addition to the more obvious litigation costs,” she writes. The paper says that VC investment would have been more than $21 billion higher over five years if not for lawsuits brought over patents by frequent litigators.

Explore Professor Tucker’s research in the Open Access Articles collection in DSpace@MIT, where it is openly accessible to the world.

Since the MIT faculty established their Open Access Policy in March 2009 they have made thousands of research papers freely available to the world via DSpace@MIT. To highlight that research, we’re offering a series of blog posts that link news stories about scholars’ work to their open access papers in DSpace.

OA research in the news: Anand wins 2014 Drucker Medal

Posted June 11th, 2014 by Katharine Dunn
Lallit Anand

Lallit Anand

Mechanical engineering professor Lallit Anand has won the 2014 Daniel C. Drucker Medal, awarded by the Applied Mechanics Division of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. The medal is one of the highest distinctions a mechanician can achieve. Anand was cited for his “seminal contributions to the formulation of constitutive theories for the plastic response of a variety of engineering solids, including polycrystalline metals, metallic glasses, glassy polymers, and granular materials.”

Explore Professor Anand’s research in the Open Access Articles collection in DSpace@MIT, where it is openly accessible to the world.

Since the MIT faculty established their Open Access Policy in March 2009 they have made thousands of research papers freely available to the world via DSpace@MIT. To highlight that research, we’re offering a series of blog posts that link news stories about scholars’ work to their open access papers in DSpace

OA research in the news: Storms peaking further from tropics

Posted May 28th, 2014 by Katharine Dunn
image from the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

image from the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

A new study coauthored by an MIT faculty member shows that powerful tropical storms are peaking in intensity further away from the equator. The migration of these cyclones, hurricanes, and typhoons is significant in part because residents and infrastructure where the storms now make landfall may be unprepared for them and thus in more danger. As well, the authors write, these cyclones “have an important role in maintaining regional water resources, and a poleward migration of storm tracks could threaten potable water supplies in some regions while increasing flooding events in others.”

While the paper makes a link between the storms’ shift and global warming, coauthor Kerry Emanuel, a professor of atmospheric science in the department of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences, says that researchers are continuing to examine this. Tropical winds have also expanded towards the poles in recent years. And, Emanuel told the MIT News, “as that belt migrates poleward, which surely it must as the whole ocean warms, the tropical cyclone genesis regions might just move with it. But we have more work to do to nail it down.”

Explore Professor Emanuel’s research in the Open Access Articles collection in DSpace@MIT, where it is openly accessible to the world.

Since the MIT faculty established their Open Access Policy in March 2009 they have made thousands of research papers freely available to the world via DSpace@MIT. To highlight that research, we’re offering a series of blog posts that link news stories about scholars’ work to their open access papers in DSpace.

Two million downloads — a new open access milestone

Posted May 21st, 2014 by Ellen Duranceau

This month the MIT Faculty Open Access Policy hit a new milestone: papers made openly available through the Open Access Articles Collection have been downloaded over 2 million times. Total downloads from the collection of just under 12,000 papers reached 2,012,312 by the end of April, 2014.

This new watershed was reached just one year after celebrating the 1 millionth download — a new peak of one million downloads in one year.

Those are not the only new high water marks: In March, at the fifth anniversary of the faculty’s establishment of the Policy, monthly downloads reached over 100,000 for the first time:

oa downloads by month through april 2014

The downloads originate from across the globe, offering access to grateful readers from many walks of life.

More about the MIT Faculty Open Access Policy:

FAQ about the Policy
Deposit a paper under the Policy

Ellen Finnie Duranceau / Program Manager, Scholarly Publishing, Copyright, and Licensing / MIT Libraries

OA research in the news: The structure of onscreen feelings

Posted May 14th, 2014 by Katharine Dunn

The-Forms-of-the-AffectsCan lines, shapes, and colors express emotions in movies? In her new book, “The Forms of the Affects,” literature professor Eugenie Brinkema closely looks at these properties in films like “Psycho” and “Open Water” and argues that they do. In her view, emotions or “affect” need not only be observed by watching characters embody a feeling like anxiety or grief. Rather, Brinkema says that formal properties like repetition, duration, and lighting show the emotion themselves.

Take the film “Open Water,” in which a husband and wife are accidentally left behind in shark-infested waters during a scuba diving trip. The movie is frightening and anxiety producing, in part, says Brinkema, because of its visual frame. Most scenes show the sea and the sky with a horizontal line between them. As time goes on in the film, that line is interrupted by shark fins above and bodies disappearing below.

“The commonplace assumption is that spectators pay money to go to horror films because it will make us feel anxious, and then we cathartically leave the theater at the end of the day and feel fine. But what if [the film’s] anxiety has to do with the specific visual form of movement and time?” Brinkema told the MIT News.

Explore Professor Brinkema’s research in the Open Access Articles collection in DSpace@MIT, where it is openly accessible to the world. Brinkema also has a newly published course on MIT OpenCourseWare.

Since the MIT faculty established their Open Access Policy in March 2009 they have made thousands of research papers freely available to the world via DSpace@MIT. To highlight that research, we’re offering a series of blog posts that link news stories about scholars’ work to their open access papers in DSpace.

RSC, ACS offer new open access options for authors

Posted May 14th, 2014 by Katharine Dunn

In the last year, two major chemistry publishers have expanded their open access options.

The Royal Society of Chemistry continues to offer its “Gold for Gold” vouchers, launched in 2013, which allow authors to publish their otherwise “closed” articles as open access articles without charge. The Libraries receive a limited number of vouchers based on the cost of providing RSC journals at MIT, and we distribute them on a first-come, first-served basis. If you have an article in the RSC publication process now and would like to make it open access at no cost, email rscvouchers@mit.edu with your name, the title of your article, and the RSC journal you’re publishing in.

The American Chemical Society recently announced a new series of open access options for authors that include an open access journal, more flexible reuse licenses for articles, and, for the rest of 2014, free deposits of NIH-funded ACS articles to PubMed Central.

There are four main components to the ACS open access program:

  •  ACS Central Science, an open access, peer-reviewed journal to launch later this year, will publish 100-200 articles annually across the chemical sciences. There will be no subscription fees to read the articles, nor any author processing charges to publish in the journal unless authors want to distribute articles under a Creative Commons license. CC licenses allow authors to modify their copyright terms so that other people can use, share, or even build upon a work, depending on the license authors choose. Authors can distribute ACS Central Science articles under a Creative Commons Attribution license for a fee of $500 for ACS members and $1000 for non-members in 2014.
  • ACS AuthorChoice, in which authors pay a fee to make articles open access, has been available to authors for several years. In 2014 ACS expanded it so that authors can now choose immediate or 12-month embargoed (AuthorChoice+12) open access. Other changes include:
    • For NIH-funded authors: In 2014 ACS is giving authors a free AuthorChoice+12 license and will deposit the ACS version of record to PubMed Central on their behalf. Authors need to acknowledge NIH funding when they publish. Starting in 2015, authors will need to pay for a PMC deposit of the ACS version unless they use Author Rewards (see below).

      Note: There is never a charge for authors to deposit their final manuscripts to PMC themselves.
    • Authors can now choose one of three licenses when they pay for AuthorChoice or AuthorChoice+12: the standard ACS AuthorChoice license or one of two Creative Commons licenses. There are additional fees for the CC licenses.
  • ACS Author Rewards: The corresponding author of each ACS article published in 2014 will receive two credits of $750 that can be used (individually or combined) to offset charges to make new or previously published articles open access. The Author Rewards must be used by the end of 2017, and the eligible corresponding author can transfer credits to co-authors or other colleagues.
  • ACS Editor’s Choice: Each day, ACS makes one newly published, peer-reviewed article openly available to highlight work of public interest. The chosen articles can be read for free, and their authors receive ACS AuthorChoice publishing licenses for no fee.

For more information or to offer feedback on these options:

RSC’s Gold for Gold FAQ

ACS’s Open Access Initiatives FAQ

Erja Kajosalo, Chemistry & Chemical Engineering Librarian

Katharine Dunn, Scholarly Communications Librarian

OA research in the news: New building will house nanoscale research

Posted April 30th, 2014 by Katharine Dunn

NewsImage_MITnano-3Starting in summer 2015, construction will begin on a 200,000-square-foot building called “MIT.nano” that will replace Building 12 on the MIT campus. The building, to be completed by 2018, will include cutting edge facilities to support research with nanoscale materials and processes. About one quarter of MIT’s graduate students and 20 percent of its researchers across many fields will make use of the facility, according to Vladimir Bulović, an electrical engineering professor and the faculty lead on the MIT.nano project.

“This building needs to be centrally located, because nanoscale research is now central to so many disciplines,” Bulović told the MIT News. “[It] was designed to encourage collaboration.”

Explore Professor Bulović’s research in the Open Access Articles collection in DSpace@MIT, where it is openly accessible to the world.

Since the MIT faculty established their Open Access Policy in March 2009 they have made thousands of research papers freely available to the world via DSpace@MIT. To highlight that research, we’re offering a series of blog posts that link news stories about scholars’ work to their open access papers in DSpace.

MIT Libraries launches online Fair Use Quiz for students

Posted April 29th, 2014 by Katharine Dunn

fairusequizThe MIT Libraries’ Office of Scholarly Publishing, Copyright, and Licensing has launched an online Fair Use Quiz to help students better understand the core concepts of copyright law’s “fair use” provision, the flexible — but notably ambiguous — exception under US copyright law that makes it possible to use others’ copyrighted works without permission. The aim of the quiz is to put information about fair use in the hands of students and empower them to make informed decisions about using copyrighted works.

The self-guided quiz, which also covers the basics of copyright and addresses website “terms of use,” takes only about 10 minutes to complete. It walks through four cases, including use of images and data in several scenarios.

The quiz can help students answer questions such as whether it’s possible to use a figure from a scholarly journal in a thesis, or whether a particular image can be uploaded to a class blog. Is there one correct answer for these questions? Probably not: Applying fair use can be complex, but the quiz attempts to give students the tools to make their own assessments.

Earlier this year, we got feedback from undergraduate and graduate students on a beta version of the quiz and adapted it accordingly. If you have any comments, please email copyright-lib@mit.edu, or contact any of the staff in the Office of Scholarly Publishing, Copyright, and Licensing. We would very much appreciate hearing from you.


OA research in the news: Germs that go to great lengths

Posted April 16th, 2014 by Katharine Dunn
by 729:512. CC-BY-NC https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/2.0/

“Sneeze vector” by 729:512. CC-BY-NC license https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/2.0/

A new study by MIT researchers shows that the droplets our noses and mouths release during coughs and sneezes can travel much further than previously thought. John Bush, a professor of applied mathematics, and Lydia Bourouiba, an assistant professor in the department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, are two of the coauthors on a recent paper, “Violent expiratory events: on coughing and sneezing.”  The researchers directly observed sneezing and coughing, and also simulated it in the lab, and found that coughs and sneezes produce “turbulent buoyant momentum puffs,” or respiratory clouds, that can carry potentially infected droplets five to 200 times further than known before. This could mean airborne pathogens are more easily transmitted through ventilation systems and enclosed spaces.

Explore Professor Bush’s research and Professor Bourouiba’s research in the Open Access Articles collection in DSpace@MIT, where it is openly accessible to the world.

Since the MIT faculty established their Open Access Policy in March 2009 they have made thousands of research papers freely available to the world via DSpace@MIT. To highlight that research, we’re offering a series of blog posts that link news stories about scholars’ work to their open access papers in DSpace.

OA research in the news: Gleason named Associate Provost

Posted April 3rd, 2014 by Katharine Dunn
Karen Gleason

Karen Gleason

Chemical Engineering professor Karen Gleason was named this week as MIT’s Associate Provost. Gleason, a faculty member since 1987, has previously served in several administrative roles, including associate dean of engineering for research. She holds 18 patents for work in chemical vapor deposition polymers and their applications in optoelectronics, sensing, microfluidics, energy, biomedicine, and membranes. Provost Martin Schmidt said Gleason’s entrepreneurship and experience with industry  will be helpful in “strengthening MIT’s industrial engagements.”

Explore Professor Gleason’s research in the Open Access Articles collection in DSpace@MIT, where it is openly accessible to the world.

Since the MIT faculty established their Open Access Policy in March 2009 they have made thousands of research papers freely available to the world via DSpace@MIT. To highlight that research, we’re offering a series of blog posts that link news stories about scholars’ work to their open access papers in DSpace.

Reclaiming your copyright after 35 years: a new opportunity

Posted March 31st, 2014 by Ellen Duranceau

Starting in 2013, authors began to have the ability to reclaim copyrights they transferred to a publisher in 1978 or later. Copyright law permits authors to reclaim their copyrights 35 years after transferring rights for purposes of publication. Authors interested in reclaiming copyright need to file a notice in advance, according to a designated timetable.

Reclaiming copyright allows the author to make new publishing arrangements, including making the work openly available on the web, or taking advantage of new economic opportunities.

Initiating the required notice to the Copyright Office involves very specific steps that must be taken on a particular timetable. A few of the key parameters include:

  • The notice to the copyright holder (publisher) must include specific pieces of information, and must also be registered with the Copyright Office
  • The notice must be provided to the copyright holder within 10 years and no later than two years before the copyright would terminate under the notice (see Sample calculations)
  • Termination must occur during a five year period beginning 35 years after publication

In a simple case, these specifications likely mean that for a work published in 1981, the last year a notice could be sent to inform the publisher about termination would be this year, in 2014. An author may require the assistance of an attorney to determine exactly whether and how the requirements apply, as the process is complex.

For more information:

Ellen Finnie Duranceau / Program Manager, Scholarly Publishing, Copyright, and Licensing / MIT Libraries

Text-mining contract signed by Libraries offers computational access to Elsevier articles

Posted March 26th, 2014 by Ellen Duranceau

elsevier logoThe MIT Libraries have signed an agreement with Elsevier, the largest publisher of journal articles in the world, to allow members of the MIT community to text-mine scholarly articles subscribed to through Elsevier’s ScienceDirect service.

Typically, licensed access to journals like Elsevier’s does not permit systematic searching or downloading, and excludes the use of software agents, robots, or scripts. This has been a disappointment to many researchers, who wish to take advantage of automated tools to carry out new forms of research, speed up the research process, and enhance discovery and innovation.

Elsevier’s new service is a response to what they called “legitimate criticism” that publishers were not responding to researcher requests for text-mining. Chris Shillum, vice-president of product management for platform and content at Elsevier, told Nature Publishing that Elsevier had been considering requests “case by case,” but “now wants to make text-mining permissions quicker and easier to obtain,” by taking “’the practical barriers away.’”

The new text-mining service for Elsevier articles is available by contacting the Libraries’ Office of Scholarly Publishing, Copyright & Licensing through the address textmine@mit.edu.

When sending a request, please include your name, a short description of your proposed project (which could be simply to experiment with the service), and who else would be involved in this research. The Libraries will obtain an API key for you to use in carrying out your text-mining research. The researcher does not need to sign any agreement – the Libraries’ agreement removes that hurdle.

Use is limited to noncommercial research, with “snippets or bibliographic metadata” from the resulting dataset (that is, not the fulltext of articles) shareable through a Creative Commons Attribution Noncommercial license.

If you have any questions about this new service, please contact:

Ellen Finnie Duranceau / Program Manager, Scholarly Publishing, Copyright & Licensing / MIT Libraries

More information :

OA research in the news: New evidence for the ‘bang’ of the Big Bang

Posted March 20th, 2014 by Katharine Dunn
Alan Guth

Alan Guth

This week, a team of astronomers announced the first “smoking gun” evidence of inflation, a theory of cosmology that describes the quick and violent expansion of the universe in its first fractions of a second. Inflation is the “‘bang’ of the Big Bang,” says Alan Guth, an MIT physics professor who first proposed the theory in 1980. “In its original form, the Big Bang theory never was a theory of the bang. It said nothing about what banged, why it banged, or what happened before it banged.”

The astronomers peered into the cosmic microwave background, a bath of radiation from the early universe, and saw the influence of ripples in space-time, known as gravitational waves. These offer extremely strong evidence that the universe expanded by a repulsive form of gravity, as described by Guth and others.

Explore Professor Guth’s research in the Open Access Articles collection in DSpace@MIT, where it is openly accessible to the world.

Since the MIT faculty established their Open Access Policy in March 2009 they have made thousands of research papers freely available to the world via DSpace@MIT. To highlight that research, we’re offering a series of blog posts that link news stories about scholars’ work to their open access papers in DSpace.

Five years on: University open access policies on the rise

Posted March 18th, 2014 by Katharine Dunn

uc_oap6bIn the five years (to the day!) since MIT faculty unanimously voted to pass the MIT Faculty Open Access Policy, dozens of other colleges and universities in North America have followed suit. In 2013 alone, nine institutions, or schools within institutions, committed to open access policies. These include Oregon State University, Wellesley College, the University of Rhode Island, Caltech, Bryn Mawr, and one of the largest public research universities in the world, the University of California. Faculty members at UC, which has 10 campuses and more than 8,000 faculty, receive about 8% of all research funding in the United States.

“Scholars everywhere owe deep thanks to the UC faculty,” wrote Peter Suber, director of the Harvard Office for Scholarly Communication, when the UC policy passed in July 2013. “[The policy] will increase the momentum for other universities to adopt their own OA policies. And it will prove that even the largest and most complex universities can still adopt OA policies by faculty vote.”

The recent policies all use language similar to MIT and Harvard, whose Faculty of Arts and Sciences passed the first OA policy in North America in 2008. They are permission based, which means faculty authors give their university a license to make articles freely available in an online repository like DSpace. In other words, OA policies like these shift the default to open access. As noted by the UC Office of the Academic Senate, “The adoption of this policy across the UC system also signals to scholarly publishers that open access, in terms defined by faculty and not by publishers, must be part of any future scholarly publishing system.”

More information:

OA policies at other universities

Guide on Good Practices for University Open-Access Policies

OA research in the news: MIT, White House co-sponsor big data workshop

Posted March 12th, 2014 by Katharine Dunn

Last week, MIT hosted a daylong workshop on big data and privacy, co-sponsored by the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy as part of a government review of these issues and policies related to them. Several faculty from MIT’s Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory spoke about their work. Among them was John Guttag, who described research done by one of his graduate students to develop an algorithm that uses hospital data to identify patients at risk for bacterial infection. Shafi Goldwasser and Nickolai Zeldovich both discussed schemes that would allow researchers to perform computations on encrypted data without decrypting it.

Explore Professor Guttag’s research, Professor Goldwasser’s research, and Professor Zeldovich’s research in the Open Access Articles collection in DSpace@MIT, where it is openly accessible to the world.

Since the MIT faculty established their Open Access Policy in March 2009 they have made thousands of research papers freely available to the world via DSpace@MIT. To highlight that research, we’re offering a series of blog posts that link news stories about scholars’ work to their open access papers in DSpace.

Access “that changes everything”: Readers reflect on value of MIT Faculty Open Access Articles

Posted March 10th, 2014 by Ellen Duranceau

oa reader comment benefit researcher
As we mark the fifth anniversary this month of the MIT Faculty Open Access Policy, readers from around the world have expressed their gratitude and appreciation for access to the articles made available through the Policy.

oa comments tax dollars quote

A reader who identified himself as an autodidact from India recently wrote that “We live in a time when bureaucracy is the impediment to knowledge, technology and equity more than ever before,” but that “This [access] changes everything.”

Similarly expansive appreciation was reflected by a corporate researcher in Malaysia: “With MIT free access, I can learn more and be a better human being.”

A full selection of reader comments is available on the MIT Libraries’ Scholarly Publishing website.

Ellen Finnie Duranceau / Program Manager, Scholarly Publishing, Copyright & Licensing / MIT Libraries

Worldwide access of MIT-authored articles reflects success of Faculty Open Access Policy

Posted March 7th, 2014 by Ellen Duranceau

As we mark the fifth anniversary of the MIT Faculty Open Access Policy, the benefits to readers worldwide grow more apparent with each passing month. Readers regularly download MIT authored articles from DSpace@MIT from all corners of the globe:

OA map Feb2014 med

Thirty-three percent of the access is from the United States, with heavy use from the research and population centers of China, India, the United Kingdom, Germany, Canada, Republic of Korea, Japan, and France, in that order. But downloads are requested from all over the world — Sweden, Brazil, Poland, Israel, and Malaysia each have accounted for about 1% of the total downloads, while the several hundred downloads from each of the African nations of Sudan, Ghana, and Uganda account for about .02%, .03%, and .04% of downloads, respectively. In 2013, downloads were requested from the Federated Republic of Micronesia and Burundi for the first time, and there have been four downloads from Greenland.

The message of these downloads is clear — five years from its inception, the faculty’s goal in adopting the MIT Faculty Open Access Policy, to “disseminat[e] the fruits of [their] research and scholarship as widely as possible,” is being met.

Ellen Finnie Duranceau / Program Manager, Scholarly Publishing, Copyright, and Licensing / MIT Libraries

Fifth anniversary of MIT Faculty Open Access Policy marks heavy use of articles

Posted March 5th, 2014 by Ellen Duranceau

Since the adoption of the MIT Faculty Open Access Policy in March 2009, over 11,000 articles have been made openly accessible through DSpace@MIT in relation to the Policy. These articles represent 37% of the total written by faculty during the same time period.

Downloads reached a new peak of 92,000 per month in October and have remained consistently above 80,000 since then, with the total cumulative downloads for all papers having surpassed 1.8 million in February.

oa articles dowload by month through feb 2014

Ellen Finnie Duranceau / Program Manager, Scholarly Publishing, Copyright, and Licensing / MIT Libraries